2005-04-22

Si matamos el lago se muere Villarrica

Los pueblos anglosajones urbanizan dejando al río en el centro de la ciudad, como espacio público privilegiado. En cambio, los pueblos latinos dejan al río detrás de la ciudad, como cloaca y basurero.

Por Manuel Gross Osses

Se dice que los pueblos anglosajones urbanizan dejando al río en el centro de la ciudad, como espacio público privilegiado. En cambio, los pueblos latinos dejan al río detrás de la ciudad, como cloaca y basurero. Esto último se confirma con los recientes desastres ecológicos, en el río Cruces y en el humedal de Batuco, vilmente mutilados o asesinados ante la ineficiencia de los organismos fiscalizadores.

La salud del lago Villarrica se deteriora lenta pero aceleradamente y en el corto plazo los altos niveles de contaminación causarán la extinción de la flora y fauna lacustres.

El lago se contamina por la actividad humana, por la filtración de fosas sépticas de viviendas ubicadas en su orilla, turismo (bañistas, lanchas, desechos, detergentes, etc.) y por la actividad agrícola y forestal, que producen arrastre de sólidos y restos de fertilizantes mal aplicados.

Estudios recientes han demostrado científicamente que el nivel trófico del lago Villarrica y otros lagos araucanos y norpatagónicos, está aumentando a niveles acelerados y presentan ya estados preocupantes de contaminación. Aunque estos lagos, en una escala de tiempo geológica, están destinados a sufrir procesos de eutroficación, su velocidad está significativamente acelerada.

Según Claudio González, Ing. (E) Químico y experto en recursos hídricos, el mejoramiento de la salud del lago pasa por el fortalecimiento de las instituciones encargadas del medio ambiente, perfeccionando la legislación, aumentando la dotación de fiscalizadores con conocimientos técnicos y mejorando el instrumental científico necesario, con el fin de realizar eficaz y eficientemente el monitoreo, no sólo del lago, sino también de sus múltiples afluentes que cada día transportan mayor cantidad de desechos orgánicos y químicos.

Debe recordarse que en el año 2006 debería estar en pleno funcionamiento la Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Servidas en Villarrica.

Por otra parte, no puede dejar de mencionarse la necesidad de combinar equilibradamente la conservación del medio ambiente con el imperativo del desarrollo económico que es intrínsecamente contaminante (por ejemplo, el turismo, la salmonicultura y la expansión urbana) cuyos efectos solamente pueden mitigarse mediante mecanismos razonablemente eficientes.

Es de esperar que en el Foro Ciudadano que se realizará el 30 de abril en Afunalhue se generen propuestas valiosas que si se implementan en el próximo gobierno puedan asegurar una larga vida al lago Villarrica… y a la ciudad.


"El Correo del Lago", 22 de abril de 2005

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